NATURE BASED SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT OF TIME
 

With the development of civilization we felt necessity of measurement in certain fields of life which can be expressed in physical units. Some of them are length, weight, time, temperature etc. measurement of time is very important and essential in day to day life of every individual. At present, the time is measured by a device i.e. a machine known as watch / clock which is based on rotation of Earth. The duration of complete one rotation of planet earth is divided in 24 equal parts and each part is known as an hour. Broadly speaking there are 12 hours in day and 12 hours in night at equator of earth. So most of the watches/clocks are made on 12 hours scale.

I have developed a watch which works according to nature and measures time in a scientific manner. The watch shows both rotation as well as revolution of earth alongwith revolution of moon. The said watch denotes more than 50 parameters and is known by the name of USEL-Watch with it's full name as Universal Solar, Earth and Lunar Watch.

The watch is broadly divided in three zones. Individuals may use watches made of one or more zones according to their own requirement.
I. Inner zone : The time zone.
II. Central zone : The calendar zone and
III. Peripheral zone : The zodiac zone.

I. TIME ZONE :

This is further divided in two components. The inner one shows time of parent country on 24 hours scale marked by figure 1 to 24 in increasing number clockwise in parent country time zone with the help of an hour hand (sun hand) which moves clockwise. The hour hand indicate time in hours. The watch is provided with a provision for correction of time whenever needed. Parent country time can also be seen in metric hours printed in circle outer to 24 hours scale, which also denotes at the same time completion of a day in percentage. 24 hours = 100 metric hours.

Outer component of time zone shows time of other foreign countries. Required time of different countries, zones, cities etc. are printed at their time meridian on a rounded disc which rotates anti clockwise and represents rotation of earth on its own axis. The disc rotates completely once in 24 hours duration. Outer to this disc there is a fixed time zone ring divided in 24 equal parts (15o each) and marked by figure 1 to 24 anticlockwise. The fixed ring is also marked by noon, mid night (MN) with date line (DL) indicating earth meridians having noon, mid night with change of next date. The country position (printed on rotating disc) in relation to time zone ring shows time of that particular country. GMT mark on disc shows Greenwich time i.e. universal time. If required summer time (day light saving time) can also be printed on rotating disc. There is a separate provision in the watch for correction of foreign countries time.

II. CALENDAR ZONE:-

This is also divided in two parts. Inner one shows lunar calendar while the outer one shows solar calendar.

(a) Lunar calendar :-

This is further sub-divided in two parts. The inner one is a rotating ring which represents revolution of moon around earth in anticlockwise direction. The speed of rotation is not uniform, rather it is variable according to Kepler's laws of revolutionary planetary bodies. The ring is marked by lunar phases (dates) 30 in number. New moon is marked by figure 30 and full moon by figure 15. Figures from new moon to full moon (1 to 15) denotes Sukladi (Sudi) and 1-15 from full moon to new moon denotes krishnadi (vadi). The figures are in increasing number clockwise. White dots in between lunar dates indicate duration of changing karna in sequence whereas black dots indicate duration of fixed karna.
One complete rotation of this ring takes 27.33 days known as tropical lunar month (revolution of moon around earth = 27.321582 days) . Alignment of figures (marked on rotating ring) with earth hand of watch denotes completion of that lunar date. Period between alignment of new moon i.e. moon hand (figure 30) with earth hand to next alignment of the same is 29.530589 days. This is known as synodic lunar month. 12 synodic lunar months make one lunar year of 29.530589x12 = 354.367068 days. Moon hand fixed on figure 30 indicates the position of moon in zodiac and moves anticlockwise alongwith rotating ring. Correction provision is provided in the watch for both lunar dates as well as shifting of moon perigee anticlockwise. Presence of moon hand on perigee (P) indicates tide in sea.
Outer part of this ring is fixed and is divided in 12 equal parts of 30o each representing 12 lunar months anticlockwise, starting 1st month from vernal equinox. Black dots denote new moon where as white dots full moon of the month. Lunar months are indicated by lunar hand provided in the watch. Lunar hand moves anticlockwise. One rotation of lunar hand on pivot of watch indicate one lunar year of 354 days.

(b) Solar Calendar :

This is also sub-divided in two parts. Inner fixed circle is divided in 12 equal parts of 30o each representing solar months which are named according to Gregorian calendar anticlockwise starting from January to December. The outer fixed circle denotes solar dates. Number of dates varies in each solar month (from 28 to 31). This circle is also marked by dates indicating summer/ winter solstices and vernal/ autumnal equinoxes. Dates of important happenings to be remembered in individual life can also be marked in this circle, if required. Solar months and dates are indicated by earth hand of watch. Earth hand of watch rotates anticlockwise on pivot of watch once in 365 days denoting a solar year. Earth hand of watch represents revolution of earth around sun. Pivot of watch being the sun. The speed of revolution is not uniform, rather it is variable according to Kepler's laws of revolutionary planets. On leap day earth hand is backwarded by one day.

III. ZODIAC ZONE :

This is a printed fixed peripheral zone and represents zodiac. This is divided in four circles. The innermost circle is divided in 12 equal parts of 30o each representing 12 signs anticlockwise starting first point of aries at vernal equinox. Outer to this is a circle of constellation (nakshatras) which is divided in equal 27 parts of 13.3333o each. Nakshatras 1 to 27 are arranged in this circle according to sequence anticlockwise starting from vernal equinox. The intermingled shaded area denotes abhijit nakshatra. Outer to circle of nakshatras is a circle of charan. Each nakshatra is divided in equal four parts of 3.3333o each. Thus a total of 108 charans are there in this circle. The outer most circle is divided in equal 360o. There is a provision for both sayana as well as nirayana system. Moon hand and earth hand indicate the position of moon and earth in zodiac respectively which is helpful in astronomy. Presence of moon in last 4.5 nakshatras indicates duration of panchaka.

Accessory Watches :

  1. Minute and second watch shows minutes and seconds.
  2. Metric second watch shows metric seconds (100 m. second = 1 m. minute).
  3. Week days disc shows 7 days of a week arranged clockwise starting from Sunday to Saturday.
  4. Equator-day watch shows demarcation of A.M. (anti-meridian) & P.M. (post-meridian) as well as day & night with duration of chaughariya and prahar at equator of earth alongwith time is ghatis (60 ghatis = 24 hours; 1 ghati = 24 minutes.
  5. Metric minute watch shows metric minutes 100 m. minute = 1 m. hour.
  6. Palas Watch shows palas (60 palas = 1 ghati).
  7. Days Meter : This can denote days completed from a memorable occasion e.g. birth, marriage etc. upto one million days, if required.


Assessory parameters by printing dial :

  1. Elliptical circle of clock represents path of revolution around Sun. Pivot of watch being Sun. The circle is demarcated by international and Indian seasons with their duration alongwith earth tilt during the year. Outer to this circle NEWS indicates four directions North, South, East & West.
  2. A semi lunar line drawn outside zodiac degrees on rightside is marked by solar months and shows Earth's slant towards Sun at the end of each solar month in degrees.
  3. Rectangular area marked by figure 1 to 12 which denotes solar months on either side of parent country time zone is helpful to assess early/late sun rise & sun set.
  4. Red dots in charan ring :- Indicates position of rising sign in east at any time at a particular latitude. Thus helping to know lagan at birth time in horoscope of an individual.
  5. A manually adjustable ring helps in family planning.
  6. Dots in last 4.5 Nakshatras indicate period of panchaka.
  7. Time and intensity of tide can be known by position of moon hand at perigee (P).
  8. Room thermometer ;- If required, a room thermometer can be fixed in clock to know the room temperature in oC & oF.


Watch denoting and having provisions for :-
  1. Zodiac showing both systems nirayana as well as Sayana.
  2. The solar year according to Gregorian calendar. Other solar calendars (by their starting date) e.g. Indian National Calendar, Japanese year, Chinese year, Paris new year etc. can be printed accordingly if required with their months and dates.
  3. The lunar year according to vikram samvat. Other lunar years (by their starting date) can be printed accordingly with their months and dates if required e.g. Islamic calendar.
  4. Seasons are shown in respect to northern hemisphere of earth. For southern hemisphere they should be changed accordingly.
  5. Solstices and equinoxes are according to northern hemisphere. They should be changed accordingly for southern hemisphere.
  6. Early/late sun rise and early/late sun set time shown in 24 hours time scale ring of parent country is different at different latitudes. So it should be printed accordingly at required latitude by an individual.
  7. Name of any required country, zone, city or local place at its time meridian can be printed on rotating disc according to personal necessity.

    N.B:- People having different time zones in their country may select one or more time zones of their own requirement. Countries geographically situated on both sides of meridian (180oE - 180oW) should choose meridian according to their home country time.
  8. To see the position of Sun in dome shaped sky at home country time meridian, the watch should be in a definite position. Dial of watch facing to north & north of watch being towards sky. So that east of watch is towards east and west of watch is towards west & south of watch being towards earth surface. In this position the hour hand (Sun hand) of watch will indicate the position of Sun in the sky.

    N.B. :- For local meridian the Sun hand is made in alignment to local meridian.
  9. Red dots marked in Charan ring helps to know the position of rising sign (rasi) in east at a particular latitude. Thus helpful to know the lagan in horoscope at birth time of an individual.
  10. Position of revolving planets can be denoted manually by fixing planet named stickers in charan ring. All planets and moon revolve in anti-clockwise direction where as Rahu and Ketu being ascending and descending nodes respectively always move clockwise. The position of planets is corrected manually every week.


DIAL'S ABBRABIATION :

On Elliptical circle (Seasons)
International : Indian :
WIN
SPR
SUM
AUT
=
=
=
=
Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
VAS
GIR
VAR
SAR
HEM
SIS
=
=
=
=
=
=
Vasanta
Grishma
Varsa
Sarat
Hemanta
Sisira

Directions : Time Zone Ring :
N
W
S
E
=
=
=
=
North
West
South
East
MN
DL
=
=
Mid Night
Date Line

Lunar Months : Solar Months
CHA
VAI
JYA
ASA
SRA
BHA
ASV
KAR
MAR
PAU
MAG
PHA

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Chaitra
Vaisakha
Jyaishta
Asadha
Sravana
Bhadrapada
Asvina
Kartika
Margasirsa
Pausa
Magha
Phalguna
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

Solar Date Ring

SS
AE
WS
VE

=
=
=
=
Summer solstice
Autumnal equinox
Winter solstice
Vernal equinox


ZODIAC ZONE :

Sign
Rasi

ARI
TAU
GEM
CAN
LEO
VIR
LIB
SCO
SAG
CAP
AQU
PIS
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Aries
Taurus
Gemini
Cancer
Leo
Virgo
Libra
Scorpio
Sagittarius
Capricornus
Aquarius
Pisces



MES
VRI
MIT
KAR
SIM
KAN
TUL
VRIS
DHA
MAK
KUM
MIN
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Mesa
Vrisa
Mithuna
Karkata
Simha
Kanya
Tula
Vriscika
Dhanus
Makara
Kumbha
Mina

Constellation (Nakshatra) Ring :
ASV
BHA
KRI
ROH
MRI
ARD
PUN
PUS
ASL
MAG
P.PHA
U.PHA
HAS
CIT
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Asvini
Bharani
Krittika
Rohini
Mrigasiras
Ardra
Punarvasu
Pusya
Aslesa
Magha
P.Phalguni
U.Phalguni
Hasta
Citra
 
SVA
VIS
ANU
JYE
MUL
P.SAD
U.SAD
ABH
SRA
DHA
SAT
P.BHA
U.BHA
REV
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Svati
Visakha
Anuradha
Jyestha
Mula
Purvasadha
Uttarasadha
Abhijit
Sravana
Dhanistha
Satabhisaj
P.Bhadrapada
U.bhadrapada
Revati

Week Days :


SUN
MON
TUE
WED
THU
FRI
SAT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday


Scale :
60 vipals
60 Palas
60 Ghatis

100 Metric Sec.
100 Metric Min.
100 Metric Hrs.

60 Second
60 Minute
24 Hours

=
=
=

=
=
=

=
=
=

1 pala
1 Ghati
24 Hours

1 m. min.
1 m. Hr.
24 Hrs.

1 Minute
1 Hour
1 Day


About"a Multipurpose Watch"
Multipurpose Watch at a Glance
About"Zodiac calendar"
 
HOME | PREFACE |WATCH | CONCEPT| FEATURES | PROGRESS | CONTACT US
© Copyright - Uselwatch.com - All rights reserved 
Site design & develope by S.S.Compusoft
Project Support Under TePP, DSIR